Monitoring of law, human rights, gender equality, HIV, TB and malaria can take various forms.
It can include research into aspects of the law, human rights and gender equality within a country or region. It can refer to ongoing monitoring and documentation of human rights violations, in an effort to strengthen access to justice, including for key populations affected by HIV, TB and malaria.
It can also include the monitoring and evaluation of the progress in implementing rights-based programmes and responses, to promote accountability and to review interventions based on lessons learned. This monitoring and evaluation is supported by efforts to integrate rights-based, gender sensitive programmes, capacity strengthening and rights-based indicators into national plans to respond to HIV, TB and malaria.
All these forms of research, monitoring and evaluation helps to provide knowledge for capacity strengthening interventions and required programmatic responses, measure progress towards strengthened legal and policy frameworks and provide evidence for ongoing advocacy and action.
Historically, LGBTI populations in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia have experienced high levels of stigma, discrimination and violence, in a legal, cultural and religious environment which fails to provide them with adequate protection from human rights violations. In some countries enabling laws are adopted by not fully implemented. Civil society organisations are faced with capacity and funding constraints and insufficient opportunities for dialogue and engagement with decision-makers.
Though there are some signs of progress in developing and enforcing protective laws, policies and plans, research conducted in the region has shown that:
UNDP’s project, Being LGBTI in Eastern Europe: Reducing Inequalities and Exclusion, and Combating Homophobia and Transphobia Experienced by LGBTI People, undertaken in collaboration with USAID, aims to strengthen the evidence base relating to LGBTI rights, develop advocacy approaches and instruments in national languages and convene dialogues between executive, legislative and judiciary branches with civil society organizations focused on LGBTI people, their allies and other stakeholders.
Being LGBTI in Eastern Europe research reports on the lives of LGBTI people in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia. The reports describe the discrimination experienced by LGBTI persons; the political, legal and policy framework and the responses by government, institutions and civil society organisations. The reports illustrate the importance of a solid evidence base for supporting advocacy for strengthening and protecting the rights of LGBTI persons in the four Eastern European countries.
Integrating legal and policy measures into higher-level national plans helps towards ensuring these actions are implemented, monitored and evaluated. This has been done successfully in various countries in Asia and the Pacific:
In Cambodia, actions have been integrated into the National HIV/AIDS and STI Strategy and the National Action Plan on Violence Against Women, which specifically addresses issues of violence against sex workers and transgender women.
In Fiji, implementation of the Action Plan is monitored as a component under the National Strategic Plan on HIV and STIs.
Similarly, in Indonesia assessment of progress of implementing recommendations of the review was folded into the mid-term review of the national HIV strategy, and the development of the new strategy and action plan. The National HIV Strategy and Action Plan for 2015-19 has a section relating to ‘Critical Enablers’, which was used as a basis for the development of the Global Fund concept note in 2015. Through this approach, programmatic recommendations were integrated into the national response with funding from the Global Fund, and grant recipients adopted a human rights and gender-sensitive programme design.
In Mongolia, progress is assessed using existing mechanisms of the Global Fund Country Coordinating Mechanism, the UN Theme Group on HIV/AIDS, and annual review processes of the new National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS. Importantly, reporting will be integrated into national reporting on the SDGs.Review of Country Progress in Addressing Legal and Policy Barriers to Universal Access to HIV services in Asia and the Pacific